Retirement Rankings

Overall Ranking

Quality of Life

Integration and Acceptance



95.23 pts


66.34 pts


96.24 pts


52.75 pts

Category Rankings




Flight Distance




Migrant's Acceptance


Cost of Living


Tax Optimization


Country Population: 39,040,258


In Vancouver, Canada, which is popular among US expats, the climate is oceanic, with mild, rainy winters and cool, sunny summers. The average annual temperature ranges from a low of 1.1°C (34°F) in January to a high of 23°C (73°F) in July and August. Precipitation averages around 1,190 mm (46.9 inches) per year, with November to March being the wettest months. This climate data is reflective of the city’s relatively mild conditions compared to the rest of Canada.

In Alberta, the climate is continental, with cold winters and warm summers. Edmonton, its capital, experiences average temperatures ranging from -6°C to -14°C (21°F to 7°F) in winter, and 16°C to 23°C (61°F to 73°F) in summer. Ontario has a more varied climate: Toronto, in southern Ontario, sees winter temperatures from -1°C to -6°C (30°F to 21°F) and summer temperatures between 19°C and 25°C (66°F to 77°F). Precipitation in Toronto averages around 831 mm (32.7 inches) annually, with wetter springs and autumns​.


In Canada, permanent residents can access the public healthcare system, which provides a range of medical services. However, eligibility and the process to access healthcare can vary between provinces and territories. Expats and non-residents typically need private health insurance until they achieve permanent resident status or meet specific provincial/territorial requirements for public healthcare access.

These private plans offer access to a broader range of healthcare services, often with shorter waiting times compared to the public system.
For American expats over 65 living in Canada, the costs for private health insurance can vary significantly based on factors like coverage level and pre-existing conditions. On average, the annual premium can range from around $4,000 to $6,000, but this is a rough estimate. For a more accurate figure tailored to individual needs, it’s advisable to get a quote from an international health insurance provider.

Flight duration

Flight durations from New York City to various cities in Canada showcase considerable variation, reflecting the vast geographical spread of the country. A non-stop flight to Toronto from New York typically ranges from 1.5 to 2 hours, offering a quick transit for travelers between these major cities. Ottawa, being relatively close, shares a similar flight duration to Toronto, around 1.5 hours, facilitating easy access between the US and Canada’s capital.

For those heading to the West Coast, direct flights from New York to Vancouver extend to about 6 hours, indicative of the continental expanse bridged by the journey. When it comes to costs, flight prices are subject to change based on a myriad of factors like booking time, seasonal demand, and airline choice. For example, flights from Ottawa to New York can fluctuate between $ 179 and $ 398, showcasing the dynamic pricing airlines adopt based on market demand and operational considerations. Similarly, the lowest observed round-trip fare from Vancouver to New York stands at approximately $ 276, though this figure is not static and can vary with time and circumstances. Travelers are encouraged to check with airlines or utilize travel platforms for the most up-to-date pricing and scheduling information, ensuring they secure the best deal for their itinerary.



Canada’s high ranking as the 11th safest country out of 163 in the Global Peace Index showcases its commendable safety and security standards on a global scale. This ranking reflects various factors, including low crime rates, stable political environment, and effective law enforcement. In alignment with this, the United States Department of State designates Canada at Level 1 in its travel recommendations, indicating that travelers should exercise normal precautions when visiting. This advisory level is the lowest, suggesting that the general safety risks in Canada are comparatively minimal, making it a secure destination for both residents and international visitors.

Migrants’ acceptance

Canada has been recognized for its welcoming stance towards immigrants and has recently reached a significant milestone by admitting over 437,000 new permanent residents in a single year, which is a historic high for the country. This influx of immigrants contributes to Canada’s reputation as an attractive destination for those seeking to relocate, evidenced by its high ranking in global polls on migrant acceptance. According to Gallup, Canada was second only to the United States as the most desirable destination for potential immigrants in 2021​.

Furthermore, Canada’s proactive approach to immigration is driven by the need to address labor shortages and demographic challenges, such as an aging population. The country’s strategy includes welcoming a significant number of immigrants to sustain its workforce and economic growth. This approach is supported by both public opinion and policy initiatives aimed at increasing Canada’s population through immigration​ (Voice of America)​.

In the context of the Gallup Migrant Acceptance research, Canada’s top position signifies its openness and the positive public perception towards migrants. This aligns with Canada’s broader immigration policies and societal attitudes that favor multiculturalism and inclusivity, making it a highly sought-after destination for migrants from around the world.

Cost of living

The cost of living comparison between New York City and Toronto indicates a significant disparity in favor of Toronto, especially when it comes to housing and consumer goods. Specifically, consumer prices in New York are 45.5% higher than those in Toronto, excluding rent. This gap widens even further when including rent, with New York prices being 70.6% higher. Rental costs alone in New York are more than double those in Toronto, showing a 110.9% increase. When dining out, New Yorkers face prices that are 48.9% higher than those in Toronto. Even grocery shopping is notably more expensive in New York, with prices 41.9% higher.

When comparing the cost of dining, an inexpensive meal in a Toronto restaurant averages around $ 18.28, whereas in New York, the cost is approximately $ 30.00. For a mid-range, three-course meal for two people, the cost in Toronto is about $  87.74 compared to New York’s $  130.00.

Grocery prices also show significant differences. In Toronto, a gallon of milk costs $  11.55, while in New York, it is cheaper at $ 5.91. A loaf of fresh white bread in Toronto costs $ 2.50, whereas in New York, it’s priced at $ 4.30.

Housing costs are considerably different as well. Renting a one-bedroom apartment in the city center of Toronto costs around $ 1,836.56, while in New York, the price escalates to $ 4,189.81. For an apartment outside the city center, Toronto’s prices are around $ 1,633.83 compared to New York’s $ 2,871.75.

When comparing consumer prices excluding rent, New York City is about 36.8% more expensive than Vancouver. This disparity widens when rent is included, with New York being 58.5% costlier. Specifically focusing on housing, rent prices in New York soar to 92.2% higher than in Vancouver. Dining out also reflects this trend, with restaurant prices in New York approximately 49.5% higher than in Vancouver. For groceries, there’s a notable difference as well, with New York’s prices being 23.0% higher than those in Vancouver.

In Vancouver, dining at an inexpensive restaurant typically costs around $18.28, while in New York, it’s about $30.00, showing a notable price difference of 64.1%. Mid-range restaurants for two also reflect this disparity, with Vancouver at $87.74 and New York at $130.00. Grocery prices exhibit a similar trend; for example, a loaf of fresh white bread costs $2.81 in Vancouver and $4.30 in New York, a significant increase of 53.3%.

Regarding utilities, the monthly cost for a basic package in a 915 sq ft apartment in Vancouver is $127.79 compared to New York’s $174.07, indicating a 36.2% increase in New York. Additionally, when it comes to renting, a 1-bedroom apartment in the city center of Vancouver is about $2,034.75, while in New York, it’s substantially higher at $4,189.81, showing more than a 100% increase.

Tax Optimization


Tax residents in Canada, known as “deemed residents,” need to file an annual income tax return to report their global income. Conversely, non-residents only need to file a tax return if they receive certain types of income from Canadian sources, like employment income, dividends, or rental payments. Non-residents will only be taxed on your income sourced in Canada.

For US expats, it’s crucial to be aware of the tax treaty between the US and Canada, designed to avoid double taxation and facilitate tax law enforcement in both countries. This treaty outlines the residency rules, dictates which country has the right to tax different types of income, and provides mechanisms like foreign tax credits to prevent double taxation​.